Tag Archives: Uses

Killer Virus Uses Protein Wrap To Evade Immune System

One of the deadliest pathogens on our planet is the Marburg virus, which can kill up to 9 out of 10 people it infects. Now scientists at The Scripps Research Institute in the US have discovered how this close cousin of the Ebola virus wraps a protein around its RNA to mask itself from the host immune system, allowing it to multiply unchecked…
Featured Health News from Medical News Today

Q&A: Is there any water filter in Australia that uses silver and removes bacteria ? Is there one Company, or many C

Question by Magic mack: Is there any water filter in Australia that uses silver and removes bacteria ? Is there one Company, or many C
Is there any Company in Australia who sells water filter units that use silver ? = Is there only one Company, or are there many ? I refer to domestic water filtering units for houses etc , and appreciate that nearly all filters use chlorine after installation.But there is one or more, who dont use chlorine, and they use silver I think= but how many Compaines do this using silver ? Thats my question ?

Best answer:

Answer by ChiChi
I really wouldn’t use anything that could get silver in *any* amount into my or my family’s water supply, or anything that they could ingest.


What do you think? Answer below!

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How the Body Uses Amino Acids

The body requires amino acids to function properly. You may have heard that protein fuels the body, but it is more correct to recognise that it is the amino acids from those proteins that make your body function at optimum levels.

Amino acids are formed in the body when proteins break down. These amino_acids then find their way to the body systems where they are most needed. The more proteins you consume on a daily basis the more healthy amino your body produces.

The Science Behind

Every time you eat foods containing proteins or take a protein supplement you are increasing your body’s ability to perform. Proteins, once ingested, travel directly to your stomach. Once in the stomach these proteins break down into a.acids. Once in the stomach the a.acids combine with digestive and other hormones and are directed to the different body systems that depend on them for proper functioning.

The circulatory system, the endocrine system, the skeletal system, and the muscular system all use amino .acids in their day to day functioning.

The amount of amino-acids available to these systems depends on the amount of protein you consume. Whole proteins, that contain essential amino acids, are a necessary part of any healthy diet. Meats, soy, fish, meat, and eggs all provide your body with needed protein.

Why Supplement?

Athletes are well aware that their bodies consume nutrients are a higher rate than non-athletes. You may already be aware of the many supplements available to help build muscle mass, control weight, and improve overall fitness. What you might not realise is the importance of adding protein supplements to your diet to increase your amino acid production.

It is important to consume protein throughout the day for amino acids to constantly form and find their way to the places in your body they are most needed.

For a body builder this place would be the muscular system. Amino acids will work to help build lean muscle mass and improve your general fitness to work out.

Protein Supplements

Protein supplements can be found in many forms. Protein bars, protein shakes, and protein powders can all be used to supplement your diet. You can look for bodybuilding supplements that contain certain amino acids known to help with muscle building. These important amino acids are:

* Arginine works to stimulate your body’s growth hormone.

* Lysine feeds your circulatory system and boosts your immune system. This is the amino acid that should be consumed for excellent health.

* Methionine is used by the body’s cells for protein synthesis, an important step in building lean muscle mass. It also helps with kidney and liver function.

* Phenylalanine helps to regulate your body’s metabolism.

* Glutamine works to increase cell production. This amino acid is necessary for building muscle mass.

Amino acids, when consumed in body building supplements, will help slow muscles from deteriorating during intense workouts. To make sure you are getting the proper amount of proteins in your diet for the forming of amino acids you will want to take protein supplements to make up for what natural foods are not giving you.

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Goji Berries -2- The Uses of Himalayan Goji Juice

Why one should use Goji Berries ?

Goji the Himalayan shrub that bears the red berries is known for its unique qualities of curing the diseases, increasing the immune system of the human body besides adding to the spirit, energy and appetite among various other benefits.  Why the fruit of this plant is considered so effective and useful?

The red berries of the Goji are immensely rich in antioxidants, carotenoids, vitamin A besides zeaxanthin.  It is also a good repository for vitamin B complex and vitamin E and C. It may be surprising to know that the Goji fruit contain 500 times of vitamin c found in oranges.

The plant is also known for, its use to increase the sexual potency, its anti inflammatory quality, and the use in the treatment of prostate enlargement. The Goji berries are store house of essential fatty acids and minerals and thus effective in the treatment of obesity, cardiac problems and high blood pressure. It is known for its rich content of polysaccharides that strengthens the human immune system and said to contain 18 amino acids that no other food plant on earth can claim to possess. The efficacy of the plant may be gauged from the fact that the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity Scale) units of the Goji berries is 25300 compared to the industry standard of a mere 3000 units and compared to 750 in oranges and 670 in cherries. This adds to the longevity of the individual and as such Goji is considered as an antidote for premature aging. The polysaccharides contained in the Goji fruit acts against the destruction of body cells and help maintain the human youth and strength.

Another factor that makes the Goji a wonder drug is its capacity to stimulates the human growth hormone by the pituitary gland that helps reducing the fat , increases sleep , faster healing and more libido all contributing for a more vibrant and youthful appearance for the body.

Written by Greenbird
Journalist and freelance writer

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An Introduction to Circulators and Their Uses

Circulators are the passive devices that contain three or more ports to transfer the power from one port to another in an organized order. It means the power that enters from port n will leave from port n+1. Thus, circulators are non-reciprocal.


The circulators are the most vital component used in radio frequencies (rf) and microwave equipments. They mainly fall into two classes, which are as follows:


3- port circulator based on Y shaped junction
4-port waveguide circulator based on Faraday rotation


In the 3-port junction, if waves coming from different path cross each other, the waves cancel each other near the magnetized material. Whereas, in case of the 4-port faraday rotation, waves propagate inside the magnetized material.


Example of a Three Port Circulator


The three-port circulator is a Y-junction shaped circulator in which the power entering from the port 1 will leave from port 2, and port 3 remains decoupled. Similarly, the power entering from port 2 will leave from port 3 and port 1 remains decoupled.


Now, you know that the power that enters port 3 in a three-port circulator will leave from port 1 and port 2 remains decoupled.


On major benefit of circulators is that they can be set to move in either direction, clockwise or anticlockwise. These circulators are called as Switchable Circulators.


What are the Uses of Circulators?


Circulators are used in various devices that require low frequency (LF), very high frequency (VHF), ultra high frequency (UHF) and in optical networks that require light. These components handle the flow of very high power in various devices.

Some of the examples are listed as below:


A water load circulator is used to absorb high power signals and maintain the reasonable power. The reasonable power attain is finally pass to the receiver or the measurement port.


Circulators, used in radar applications, help in routing the incoming and outgoing signals between the antenna, the transmitter and the receiver.


Radio frequency circulators, used in optical circuits, consist of ferrite material that when magnetized produce a continuous magnetic flux through waveguide.


In addition to the afore-mentioned uses, circulators are also used in broadcast and TV transmitters, air traffic control, military equipments, car telephone systems and microwave heating applications.


Why are Circulators so Expensive?

Circulators are expensive because they are manually assembled, finely tuned and efficiently tested before they are used.

Chris enjoys writing articles on topics like Circulators and air circulators. Visit to read more detail.

Article from articlesbase.com

circulatory system

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Introduction to Bacteria and their Industrial and Technological Uses

In this introductory article we will briefly define bacteria, outline the history of bacteriology, examine some of their interactions with other organisms before discussing the significance of bacteria in technology and industry

What are bacteria ?

Bacteria are a large group of unicellular, prokaryote, microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste (see below), water, and deep in the Earth’s crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth, forming much of the world’s biomass according to an article by Whitman WB, Coleman DC, Wiebe WJ (June 1998). “Prokaryotes: the unseen majority” .

Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction. However, most bacteria have not been characterized, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora of bacteria as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora. The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, and a few are beneficial. However, a few species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa.  .In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and in agriculture, so antibiotic resistance is becoming common. In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment, the production of cheese and yoghurt through fermentation, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.

Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and othereukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea.

History of bacteriology

Bacteria were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.  He called them “animalcules” and published his observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society. The name bacterium was introduced much later, by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in 1838.

Louis Pasteur demonstrated in 1859 that the fermentation process is caused by the growth of microorganisms, and that this growth is not due to spontaneous generation. (Yeasts and molds, commonly associated with fermentation, are not bacteria, but rather fungi.) For more information please see our series on eminent anatomists and physiologists.

Along with his contemporary, Robert Koch, Pasteur was an early advocate of the germ theory of disease. Robert Koch was a pioneer in medical microbiology and worked on cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis. In his research into tuberculosis, Koch finally proved the germ theory, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905. In Koch’s postulates, he set out criteria to test if an organism is the cause of a disease; these postulates are still used today.

Though it was known in the nineteenth century that bacteria are the cause of many diseases, no effective antibacterial treatments were available. In 1910, Paul Ehrlich developed the first antibiotic, by changing dyes that selectively stained Treponema pallidum—thespirochaete that causes syphilis—into compounds that selectively killed the pathogen. Ehrlich had been awarded a 1908 Nobel Prize for his work on immunology, and pioneered the use of stains to detect and identify bacteria, with his work being the basis of the Gram stain and the Ziehl-Neelsen stain.

A major step forward in the study of bacteria was the recognition in 1977 by Carl Woese that archaea have a separate line of evolutionary descent from bacteria. This new phylogenetic taxonomy was based on the sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA, and divided prokaryotes into two evolutionary domains, as part of the three-domain system. As stated above for more information please consult our article “Eminent Anatomists and Physiologists” in this series.

Interactions with other organisms

Despite their apparent simplicity, bacteria can form complex associations with other organisms. These symbiotic associations can be divided into parasitism, mutualism andcommensalism. Due to their small size, commensal bacteria are ubiquitous and grow on animals and plants exactly as they will grow on any other surface. However, their growth can be increased by warmth and sweat, and large populations of these organisms in humans are the cause of body odor.


Some species of bacteria kill and then consume other microorganisms, these species called predatory bacteria.These include organisms such as Myxococcus xanthus, which forms swarms of cells that kill and digest any bacteria they encounter. Other bacterial predators either attach to their prey in order to digest them and absorb nutrients, such asVampirococcus, or invade another cell and multiply inside the cytosol, such as DaptobacterThese predatory bacteria are thought to have evolved from saprophages that consumed dead microorganisms, through adaptations that allowed them to entrap and kill other organisms.


Certain bacteria form close spatial associations that are essential for their survival. One such mutualistic association, called interspecies hydrogen transfer, occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that consume organic acids such as butyric acid or propionic acid and produce hydrogen, and methanogenic Archaea that consume hydrogen. The bacteria in this association are unable to consume the organic acids as this reaction produces hydrogen that accumulates in their surroundings. Only the intimate association with the hydrogen-consuming Archaea keeps the hydrogen concentration low enough to allow the bacteria to grow.

In soil, microorganisms which reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the root surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) carry out nitrogen fixation, converting nitrogen gas to nitrogenous compounds. This serves to provide an easily absorbable form of nitrogen for many plants, which cannot fix nitrogen themselves. Many other bacteria are found as symbionts in humans and other organisms. For example, the presence of over 1,000 bacterial species in the normal human gut flora of the intestines can contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin K and biotin, convert milk protein to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus), as well as fermenting complex undigestible carbohydrates. The presence of this gut flora also inhibits the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (usually through competitive exclusion) and these beneficial bacteria are consequently sold as probiotic dietary supplements.


If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, cholera, foodborne illness, leprosy and tuberculosis. A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may only be discovered many years after, as was the case withHelicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. Bacterial diseases are also important in agriculture, with bacteria causing leaf spot, fire blight and wilts in plants, as well as Johne’s disease, mastitis, salmonella and anthrax in farm animals.

Each species of pathogen has a characteristic spectrum of interactions with its human hosts. Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus orStreptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even overwhelming sepsis, a systemic inflammatory responseproducing shock, massive vasodilation and death. Yet these organisms are also part of the normal human flora and usually exist on the skin or in the nose without causing any disease at all. Other organisms invariably cause disease in humans, such as the Rickettsia, which are obligate intracellular parasites able to grow and reproduce only within the cells of other organisms. One species of Rickettsia causestyphus, while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chlamydia, another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia, or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease.

Significance of bacteria in technology and industry

Bacteria, often lactic acid